Research Bibliography - By Subject

Use the table provided below to browse our bibliography by topic relating to personal meaning. At the bottom of each linked section, there is a link to return to the table at the top of the page. We apologize for the archiac nature of our bibliography, and we are working to develop a new system that will be much easier to search. Thank you for your patience.

Personal Meaning & AIDS Personal Meaning & Addictions
Personal Meaning & Aging Personal Meaning & Cancer
Personal Meaning & Chronic Illness and Disability Personal Meaning & Depression
Personal Meaning & Death and Dying Personal Meaning & Developmental Issues
Personal Meaning & Divorce Personal Meaning & Happiness
Personal Meaning & Growth Personal Meaning & Health
Personal Meaning & Spirituality Personal Meaning & Stress
Personal Meaning & Suffering Personal Meaning & Work
Personal Meaning and Sense of Coherence Sources of Personal Meaning
Theories and Therapeutic Models of Meaning & Purpose Theological Perspectives of Meaning & Purpose
Humanistic-Existential Psychotherapy  

Personal Meaning & AIDS

Coward, D. D. (1994). Meaning and purpose in the lives of persons with AIDS. Public Health Nursing, 11, 331-336.

Coward, D.D. (2000). Making meaning within the experience of life-threatening illness. In G.T. Reker and K. Chamberlain (Eds.), Exploring existential meaning: Optimizing human development across the life span (pp. 157-170). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Allan, J. (1990). Focusing on living, not dying: A naturalistic study of self-care among seropositive gay men. Holistic Nursing Practice, 4, 56-63.

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Personal Meaning & Addictions

Carroll, S. (1993, May). Spirituality and purpose in life in alcoholism recovery. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 297-301.

Jacobson, G. R., Ritter, D. P., & Mueller, L. (1977). Purpose in life and personal values among adult alcoholics. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33, 314-316.

Padelford, B. L. (1974). Relationship between drug involvement and purpose in life. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30, 303-305.

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Personal Meaning & Aging

Giovinco, G., & McDougald, J. (1994). Logotherapy: A journey into meaning for people with AIDS. The International Forum for Logotherapy, 17, 76-81.

Reker, G.T. (2002). Prospective predictors of successful aging in community-residing and institutionalized Canadian elderly. Ageing International, 27, 42-64.

Reker, G.T. (1999). Profile of successful agers: Biopsychosocial and existential predictors. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, San Francisco, November, 1999.

Reker, G. T., Peacock, E. J., & Wong, P. T. P. (1987). Meaning and purpose in life and well-being: A life-span perspective. Journal of Gerontology, 42, 44-49.

Reker, G. T., & Wong, P. T. P. (1984). Psychological and physical well-being in the elderly: The Perceived Well-Being Scale (PWB). Canadian Journal on Aging, 3, 23-32.

Reker, G. T., & Wong, P. T. P. (1984). Psychological and physical well-being in the elderly: The perceived well-being scale (PWB). Canadian Journal on Aging, 3, 23-32.

Reker, G. T., & Wong, P. T. P. (1988). Aging as an individual process: Toward a theory of personal meaning. In J. E. Birren and V. L. Bengtson (Eds.), Emergent Theories of Aging (pp. 214-246). New York: Springer Publishing Co.

Ryff, C. D., & Essex, M. J. (1992). The interpretation of life experience and well-being: The sample case of relocation. Psychology and Aging, 7, 4, 507-517.

Sagy, S., Antonovsky, A., & Adler, I. (1990). Explaining life satisfaction in later life: The sense of coherence model and activity theory. Behavior, Health, & Aging, 1(1), 11-25.

Van Ranst, N. and Marcoen, A. (2000). Structural components of personal meaning in life and their relationship with death attitudes and coping mechanisms in late adulthood. In G.T. Reker and K. Chamberlain (Eds.), Exploring existential meaning: Optimizing human development across the life span (pp. 59-74). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Wong, P. T. P. (1989). Personal meaning and successful aging. Canadian Psychology, 30, 516-525.

Wong, P. T. P., & Watt, L. (1991). What types of reminiscence are associated with successful aging? Psychology and Aging, 6, 272-279.

Wong, P. T. P. (1995). The process of adaptive reminiscence. In B. K. Haight & J. D. Webster (Eds.) The art and science of reminiscing: Theory, research, methods, and application (pp. 23-35). Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.

Wong, P. T. P. (1995). Sources of personal meaning across the life-span. Paper presented at the International Congress of Logotherapy, July, 1995, Dalas, TX.

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Personal Meaning & Cancer

Massie, M. J., Gagnon, P., & Holland, J. (1994). Depression and suicide in patients with cancer. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 9, 325-340.

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Personal Meaning & Chronic Illness and Disability

Farran, C. J., & Keane-Hagerty, E. (1991). Finding meaning: An alternative paradigm for Alzheimerís disease family caregivers. Gerontologist, 31(4) 483-489.

Farran, C.J., Graham, K.L., and Loukissa, D. (2000). Finding meaning in caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease: African American and White caregivers' perspectives. In G.T. Reker and K. Chamberlain (Eds.), Exploring existential meaning: Optimizing human development across the life span (pp. 139-156). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Lukas, E. (1998). The meaning of life and the goals of life for chronically ill people. In P. T. P. Wong & P. S. Fry (Eds.), The human quest for meaning: A handbook of psychological research and clinical application. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers.

Wood, B. C., & Mynors-Wallis, L. M. (1997). Problem-solving therapy in palliative care. Palliative Medicine, 11, 49-54.

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Personal Meaning & Depression

Reker, G.T. (1997). Personal meaning, optimism, and choice: Existential predictors of depression in community and institutional elderly. The Gerontologist, 37 (6), 709-716.

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Personal Meaning & Death and Dying

Mullens, A. (1993). Society must lead in determining Canadian position on euthanasia, doctors say. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 148(8), 1363-66.

Scott, J. (1992). Lamentation and euthanasia, Humane Medicine, 8, 116-121.

Senate of Canada. (1995, June). Of life and death. A report of the Special Senate Committee on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide.

Smith, D. C. & Maher, M. F. (1993). Achieving a healthy death: The dying personís attitudinal contributions. The Hospice Journal, 9, 21-32.

Smith, M., Alter, S., & Harder, S. (1994). Euthanasia and cessation of treatment. Library of Parliament.

Tada, J. E. (1992). When is it right to die? Suicide, euthanasia, suffering, mercy. Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House.

Wong, P. T. P., Reker, G. T., & Gesser, G. (1994). Death Attitude Profile ó Revised: A multidimensional measure of attitudes toward death. In R. A. Neimeyer (Ed.) Death anxiety handbook: Research, instrumentation, and application. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.

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Personal Meaning & Developmental Issues

Bridges, W. (1980) Transitions: Making sense of life's changes. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Reker, G.T., & Chamberlain, K. (Eds.)(2000). Exploring existential meaning: Optimizing human development across the life span. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.

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Personal Meaning & Divorce

Gray, J.D., & Silver, R.C. (1990). Opposite sides of the same coin: Former spousesí divergent perspectives in coping with their divorce. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1180-1191.

Spanier, G.B., & Castro, R.F. (1979). Adjustment to separation and divorce: A qualitative analysis. In G. Levinger & O.C. Males (Eds.), Divorce and separation: Context, causes, and consequences (pp. 211-227). New York: Basic Books.

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Personal Meaning & Growth

Heatherton, T.F., & Nichols, P.A. (1994). Personal accounts of successful versus failed attempts at life change. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 664-6756.

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Personal Meaning & Happiness

Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well- being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 6, 1069-1081.

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Personal Meaning & Health

Antonovsky, A. (1984b). The sense of coherence as a deter- minant of health. In J.D. Matarazzo, S.M. Weiss (Eds.), Behavioral Health: A handbook of health enhancement and disease prevention. New York: Wiley.

Antonovsky, A. (1985). The life cycle, mental health and the sense of coherence. Israeli Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 22(4), 273-280.

Antonovsky, A. (1987). Unraveling the mystery of health: How people manage stress and stay well. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Antonovsky, A. (1990). A somewhat personal odyssey in studying the stress process. Stress Medicine, 6, 71-80.

Antonovsky, A. (1991). The structural sources of salutogenic strengths. In C.L. Cooper and R. Paynes (Eds.), Personality and Stress: Individual Differences. New York: John Wiley.

Antonovsky, A. (1992). Can attitudes contribute to health? Advances, 8(4), 33-49.

Gallagher, T.J., Wagenfeld, M.O., Baro, F., Haepers, K. (1994). Sense of Coherence, coping, and caregiver role overload. Social Sciences and Medicine, 39(12), 1615-1622.

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Personal Meaning & Spirituality

McFadden, S. H. (2000). Religion and meaning in later life. In G.T. Reker and K. Chamberlain (Eds.), Exploring existential meaning: Optimizing human development across the life span (pp. 171-184). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Wong, P. T. P. (1998). Spirituality, meaning, and successful aging. In P. T. P. Wong & P. Fry (Eds.), The human quest for meaning: A handbook of psychological research and clinical application (pp. 359-394). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers.

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Personal Meaning & Stress

Antonovsky, A. (1979). Health, stress, and coping. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Cohen, S., & Edwards, J.R. (1989). Personality characteristics as moderators of the relationship between stress and disorder. In R.W.J. Neufeld (Ed.), Advances in the investigation of psychological stress, p. 235- 83. New York: John Wiley.

Cohen, S., & Wills, T.A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310-357.

Lavee, Y., McCubbin, H.I., & Olson, D.H. (1987). The effect of stressful life events and transitions on family functioning and well-being. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 857-873.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Radmacher, S.A., & Sheridan, C.L. (1989). The global inventory of stress: A comprehensive approach to stress assessment. Medical Psychotherapy, 2, 183-188.

Williams, S.J. (1990). The relationship among stress, hardiness, sense of coherence, and illness in critical care nurses. Medical Psychotherapy, 3, 171-186.

Wong, P. T. P. (1993b). Effective management of life stress: the resource-congruence model. Stress Medicine, 9, 51-60.

Wong, P. T. P. (1995a). A stage model of coping with frustrative stress. In R. Wong (Ed.) Biological perspectives on motivated activities (pp. 339-378). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

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Personal Meaning & Suffering

Meyer, B., & Taylor, S.E. (1986). Adjustments to rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 1226-1234.

Moulyn, A. C. (1982). The meaning of suffering : An interpretation of human existence from the viewpoint of time. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1982.

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Personal Meaning & Work

Antonovsky, A., Sagy, S., Adler, I., & Visel, R. (1990). Attitudes toward retirement in an Israeli cohort. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 31(1), 57-77.

Amundson, N. E. (1993). Mattering: A foundation for employment counselling and training. Journal of Employment Counselling, 30, 146-152.

Raines, J. C., & Day-Lower, D. C. (1986). Modern work and human meaning. Philadelphia, PA: The Westminster Press.

Sagy, S., & Antonovsky, A. (1990). Coping with retirement: Does the sense of coherence matter less in the kibbutz? International Journal of the Health Sciences, 1(4), 233-242.

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Personal Meaning and Sense of Coherence

Antonovsky, A. (1994). The sense of coherence: An historical and future perspective. In H.I. McCubbin, E.A. Thompson, A.I. Thompson, & J.E. Fromer (Eds.), Sense of coherence and resiliency: Stress, coping, and health. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Antonovsky, H., & Sagy, S. (1986). The development of a sense of coherence and its impact on responses to stress situations. The Journal of Social Psychology, 126, 213-225.

Chamberlain, K., Petrie, K., & Azariah, R. (1992). The role of optimism and sense of coherence in predicting recovery following surgery. Psychology and Health, 7, 301-310.

Fiorentino, L.M., & Pomazal, R.J. (1994). Sense of coherence and the stress-illness relationship among employees: A prospective study. In H.I. Mccubbin, E.A. Thompson, A.I. Thompson, J.E. Fromer (Eds.), Sense of coherence and resiliency: Stress, coping, and health. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin- Madison.

Flannery, R.B., & Flannery, G.J. (1990). Sense of coherence, life stress, and psychological distress: A prospective methodological inquiry. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46(4), 415-420.

Gallagher, T.J., Wagenfeld, M.O., Baro, F., Haepers, K. (1994). Sense of Coherence, coping, and caregiver role overload. Social Sciences and Medicine, 39(12), 1615-1622.

Gosse, V. (1988). Hardiness, sense of coherence, and potency: Their relationship to each other and to health practices. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Memorial University, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada.

Hart, K.E., Hittner, J.B., & Paras, K. (1991a). Sense of coherence, trait anxiety, and the perceived availability of social support. Journal of Research in Personality, 25, 137-145.

Midanik, L.T., Soghikian, K., Ransom, L.J., & Polen, M.R. (1992). Alcohol problems and sense of coherence among older adults. Social Sciences and Medicine, 34(1), 43-48

Mullen, P.M., Smith, R.M., & Hill, E.W. (1993). Sense of coherence as a mediator of stress for cancer patients and spouses. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 11(3), 23-46..

Nyamathi, A.M. (1993). Sense of coherence in minority women at risk for HIV infection. Public Health Nursing, 10(3), 151-158

Petrie, K., & Brook, R. (1992). Sense of coherence, self-esteem, depression and hopelessness as correlates of reattempting suicide. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31, 293-300.

Post-White, J. (1994). The role of sense of coherence in mediating the effects of mental imagery on immune function, cancer outcome, and quality of life. In H.I. Mccubbin, E.A.Thompson, A.I. Thompson, and J.E. Fromer (Eds.), Sense of coherence and resiliency: Stress, coping, and health. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Ryland, E., & Greenfeld, S. (1991). Work stress and well being: An investigation of Antonovsky's sense of coherence model. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6, 1-16.

Sagy, S., & Antonovsky, A. (1990). Coping with retirement: Does the sense of coherence matter less in the kibbutz? International Journal of the Health Sciences, 1(4), 233-242.

Sagy, S., Antonovsky, A., & Adler, I. (1990). Explaining life satisfaction in later life: The sense of coherence model and activity theory. Behavior, Health, & Aging, 1(1), 11-25.

Sagy, S. (November, 1994). Sense of coherence and its relevance to health: The legacy of Aaron Antonovsky. Invited paper presented at the Symposium on "Social Networks and Health", Copenhagen, Denmark.

Strumpfer, D.J.W., & Fritz, G. (1990, October). Relationship of sense of coherence to health and work in dating processing personnel. Paper Presented at the Annual Congress, Psychological Association of South Africa, Port Elizabeth.

Strumpfer, D.J.W., Segaloe, S.S., Moloto, J., & Page, M.J. (1994). Sense of coherence as moderator of stressor- strain relationships in a sample of public servants. Unpublished Manuscript.

Thompson, A.I. & J.E. Fromer (Eds.), Sense of coherence and resiliency: Stress, coping, and health. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Wagenfeld, M.O., Baro, F., Gallagher, T.J., & Haepers, K. (1994). The correlates of coherence in caregivers to demented and nondemented elderly in Belgium: An interim report. In H.I. McCubbin, E.A.Thompson.

Williams, S.J. (1990). The relationship among stress, hardiness, sense of coherence, and illness in critical care nurses. Medical Psychotherapy, 3, 171-186.

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Sources of Personal Meaning

Baumeister, R.F., & Newman, L.S. (1994). How stories make sense of personal experiences: Motives that shape autobiographical narratives. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 676-690.

Chamberlain, K., & Zika, S. (1988). Measuring meaning in life: An examination of three scales. Personality and Individual Differences, 9(3), 589-596.

Crumbaugh, J. C., & Maholick, L. T. (1969). Manual of instruction for the Purpose in Life Test. Munster, IN: Psychometric Affiliates.

De Vogler-Ebersole, K., & Ebersole, P. (1985). Depth of meaning in life: Explicit rating criteria. Psychological Reports, 56, 303-310.

Fife, B. L. (1995). The measurement of meaning in illness. Social Science Medicine, 40, 1021-1028.

Flannery, R.B., Perry, J.C., Penk, W.E., & Flannery, G.J. (1994). Validating Antonovsky's sense of coherence scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50(4), 575-577.

Frenz, A.W., Carey, M.P., & Jorgensen, R.S. (1993). Psychometricevaluation of Antonovsky's sense of coherence scale. Psychological Assessment, 5(2), 145-153.

Hart, K.E., Shahani, C., & Bliok, P. (August, 1991b). The 13-item sense of coherence scale: Evidence regarding construct validity. Paper presented at the convention of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.

Korotkov, D. (1993). An assessment of the (short-form) sense of coherence personality measure: Issues of Validity and well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 14(4), 575-583.

Prager, E., Savaya, R., and Bar-Tur, L. (2000). The development of a culturally sensitive measure of sources of life meaning. In G.T. Reker & K. Chamberlain (Eds.), Exploring existential meaning: Optimizing human development across the life span (pp. 123-136). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Reker, G.T. (2000). Theoretical perspective, dimensions, and measurement of existential meaning. In G.T. Reker & K. Chamberlain (Eds.), Exploring existential meaning: Optimizing human development across the life span (pp. 39-55). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Reker, G.T. (1999). A factor analytic investigation of measures of existential meaning. Symposium paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Boston, August, 1999.

Reker, G.T. (1999). Manual of the Life Attitude Profile-Revised (LAP-R). Peterborough, ON: Student Psychologists Press.

Reker, G.T. (1996). Manual of the Sources of Meaning Profile-Revised (SOMP-R). Peterborough, ON: Student Psychologists Press.

Reker, G. T., & Peacock, E. J. (1981). The Life Attitude Profile (LAP): A multidimensional instrument for assessing attitudes toward life. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 13, 264-273.

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Theories and Therapeutic Models of Meaning & Purpose

Adler, A. (1931). What life should mean to you. New York: Putnamís.

Adler, A. (1963). The practice and theory of individual psychology. Patterson, NJ: Littlefield, Adams.

Battista, J., & Almond, R. (1973). The development of meaning in life. Psychiatry, 36, 409-427.

Baumeister, R.F. (1991). Meanings of life. New York: Guilford.

Baumeister, R.F. (1991). Meanings of life. New York: Guilford.

Bruner, J. S. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ebersole, P., & DeVogler, K. L. (1985). Meaning in life of the eminent and the average. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 1, 83-94.

Ellis, J. B., & Smith, P. C. (1991). Spiritual well-being, social desirability and reasons for living: Is there a connection? The International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 37, 1, 57-63.

Fabry, J. B. (1968). The pursuit of meaning: Logotherapy applied to life. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

Fabry, J. (1968). The Pursuit of Meaning. Boston: Beacon Press.

Fabry, J. (1988). Guideposts to Meaning. Oakland: New Harbinger, Publications.

Frankl, V. E. (1959). The Doctor and the Soul. New York: Vintage Books.

Frankl, V. E. (1963). Manís search for meaning. New York: Pocket Books.

Frankl, V. E. (1967). Psychotherapy and Existentialism. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Frankl, V. E. (1969). The Will to Meaning. New York: New American Library.

Frankl, V. E. (1973a). Meaninglessness: A challenge to psychologists. In T. Millon (Ed.) Theories of psychopathology and personality (2nd ed., pp. 231-238). Philadelphia: Saunders.

Frankl, V. E. (1978). The Unheard Cry for Meaning. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Frankl, V. E. (1982). Psychotherapy on its way to rehumanization. In Analecta Frankliana, Sandra Wawrytko (ed.). Proceedings of the First World Congress of Logotherapy. Berkeley: Institute of Logotherapy Press.

Frankl, V. E. (1985). The unheard cry for meaning: Psychotherapy and humanism. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Frankl, V. E. (1992). Meaning in industrial society. The International Forum for Logotherapy, 15, 66-70.

Fowler, J. (1981). Stages of faith: The psychology of human development and the quest for meaning. New York: Harper & Row.

Guttmann, D. (2000). Logotherapeutic and "depth psychology" approaches to meaning and to psychotherapy. In G.T. Reker and K. Chamberlain (Eds.), Exploring existential meaning: Optimizing human development across the life span (pp185-198). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Haight & Webster (Eds.). (1994). The art and science of reminiscing: Theory, research, methods, and application. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.

Jung, C. G. (1933). Modern man in search of a soul (W. S. Dell & C. F. Baynes, Trans.). San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Jung, C. G. (1938). Psychology and religion. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press

Klinger, E. (1977). Meaning and void. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Kraft, W. F. (1974). A psychology of nothingness. Philadelphia, PA: The Westminster Press.

Lerner, M. (1995). The politics of meaning . Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Lukas, E. (1984). Meaningful living. Cambridge, MA.: Schenkman.

Maddi, S. R. (1970). The search for meaning. In A. Williams & M. Page (Eds.) The Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (pp. 134-183). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Malm, L. (1993). The eclipse of meaning in cognitive psychology: Implications for humanistic psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 33, 1, 67-87.

Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a psychology of being (2nd ed.). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

Maslow, A. H. (1970). Motivation and personality (2nd ed.). New York: Harper & Row.

Maslow, A. H. (1971). The farthest reaches of human nature. New York: The Viking Press.

May, R. (1940). The springs of creative living: A study of human nature and God. New York: Abingdon-Cokesbury.

May, R. (1953). Manís search for himself. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.

May, R. (1967). Psychology and the human dilemma. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc.

May, R. (1969). Existential bases of psychotherapy. In R. May (Ed.) Existential psychotherapy (pp. 72-83). New York: Random House.

May, R. (1989, Spring). The therapist and the journey into hell. National Forum, 33-37.

May, R., & Yalom, I. (1989). Existential psychotherapy. In R. J. Corsini & D. Wedding (Eds.), Current Psychotherapies (4th ed.). Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock Publishers, Inc.

Moore, T. (1993). Care of the soul . New York: HarperCollins.

Prager, E. (1996). Exploring personal meaning in an age-differentiated Australian sample: Another look at the Sources of Meaning Profile (SOMP). Journal of Aging Studies, 10, 117-136.

Prager, E. (1997). Sources of personal meaning for older and younger Australian and Israeli women: Profile and comparisons. Ageing and Society, 17, 167-189.

Prager, E. (1998). Observations of personal meaning sources for Israeli age cohorts. Aging and Mental Health, 2, 128-136.

Reker, G.T. (1994). Logotheory and logotherapy: Challenges, opportunities, and some empirical findings. The International Forum for Logotherapy, 17, 47-55.

Sahakian, W. S. (1985). Viktor Franklís meaning for psychology. International Forum for Logotherapy, 8, 1, 11-16.

Tillich, P. (1952). The courage to be. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Tweedie, D. F. (1961). Logotherapy and the Christian faith. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.

Thompson, S.C., & Janigian, A.S. (1988). Life schemes: A framework for understanding the search for meaning. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 7, 260-280.

Weisskopf-Joelson, E. (1968). Meaning as an integrating factor. In C. Buhler and F. Massarik (Eds.), The course of human life: A study of goals in the humanistic perspective. New York: Springer Publishing Co.

Wong, P. T. P. (1997). Meaning-Centred Counselling: A cognitive-behavioral approach to Logotherapy. The International Forum for Logotherapy, 20, 85-94.

Wong, P. T. P. (1998a). Meaning-Centred Counselling. In P. T. P. Wong and P. S. Fry (Eds.) The human quest for meaning: A handbook of psychological research and clinical application (pp. 395-435). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers.

Wong, P. T. P. (1998b). Implicit theories of meaningful life and the development of the Personal Meaning Profile. In P. T. P. Wong and P. S. Fry (Eds.), The human quest for meaning: A handbook of psychological research and clinical application (pp. 111-140). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers.

Wong, P. T. P. (1998c). Spirituality, meaning, and successful aging. In P. T. P. Wong and P. S. Fry (Eds.), The human quest for meaning: A handbook of psychological research and clinical application (pp. 359-394). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers

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Philosophical Perspectives on Meaning & Purpose

Ayer, A.J. (1990). The meaning of life. New York: C. Scribnerís Sons.

Becker, G. (1997). Disrupted lives: how people create meaning in a chaotic world. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Britton, K. (1969). Philosophy and the meaning of life. London, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Brown, R.A. (Ed.) (1986). The essential Reinhold Niebuhr : selected essays and addresses. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Burke, C. & Cummins, R. (1970). Searching for meaning . Winona, MN.: St. Mary's College Press. Cohen, M.R. (1961). The meaning of human history. LaSalle, Ill.: Open Court.

Dougherty, F. (Ed.) (1982). Conference International Ecumenical Congress on the Meaning of Human Suffering. New York: Human Sciences Press.

Fodor, J.A. (1987). Psychosemantics: the problem of meaning in the philosophy of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hallett, G. (1967). Wittgenstein's definition of meaning as use. New York: Fordham University Press. Harrison, B. (1972). Meaning and structure: an essay in the philosophy of language. New York: Harper & Row.

Hermans, H.J.M. & Kempen, H.J.G. (1993). The dialogical self: meaning as movement. San Diego: Academic Press. Hocking, W.E. (1957/73). The meaning of immortality in human experience. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Hocking, W.E. (1963). The meaning of God in human experience: a philosophic study of religion. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Kenyon, G. (2000). Philosophical foundations of existential meaning. In G.T. Reker and K. Chamberlain (Eds.), Exploring existential meaning: Optimizing human development across the life span (pp. 7-22). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

MacKay, D. M. (1982). Science and the quest for meaning. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Meyer, M. (1983). Meaning and reading: a philosophical essay on language and literature. Amsterdam, PA: PhiladelphiaJ. Benjamins.

Ogden, C.K. & Richards, I.A. (1962). The meaning of meaning: a study of the influence of language upon thought and of the science of symbolism. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

Phenix, P.H. (1964). Realms of meaning: a philosophy of the curriculum for general education. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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Humanistic-Existential Psychotherapy

The False Dasein: From Heidegger to Sartre and Psychoanalysis © Jon Mills, Published in the Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 1997, 28(1), 42-65

The Impact of Existential Philosophy on Modern Psychology by Sheldon Litt, Ph.D.

The Theoretical Foundations of Existential Psychotherapy by Abdul Hamid Evans - Highland Islamic Clinic, Weimar Institute

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